Data about calls made and received will also be available to 652 public bodies, including the police and councils.
The Home Office said the content of calls and texts would not be read and insisted the move was vital to tackle serious crime and terrorism.But critics said it was another example of Britain's "surveillance society".
The new law, under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, was signed off by Home Secretary Jacqui Smith in July. It requires phone companies to log data on every call or text made to and from every phone in Britain.
Here we go, slipping and sliding into 'full information dominance'.
Read in full - 'Phonecalls and texts to be logged'